Getting Sassy

I’ve been learning a lot of new things at work these days. A LOT of new things. As a matter of fact, I’ve been waking up thinking of code. This. has. got. to. stop. I just had a couple of books come today from Amazon, so I’m looking forward to taking a break from the code and diving into them tonight.

But first, I want to write this blog post about SASS. It just really blows me away how much power it has. I came to SASS from LESS. I thought LESS was enough. But, now that I’ve seen the power of SASS, and now that I’ve seen how complex stuff other people have written that I’m trying to “install” is, I’m looking forward to writing some plain ol’ mixins and functions that can be plopped into a directory on my site without needing to go through some huge front-end dev complex install/build brouhaha. Kind-of like how I’ve always used jquery plugins. Pull them down from the web, plop them in a directory. Link to them. I like it like that. (Expect a future post from Gladys and I on this whole new era of front-end dev complexity.)

So, in preparation to go a little deeper with SASS, I decided I should learn all the parts of the language first. And there were many places I went to for that, and wound up taking copious notes and trying things out. I figured I’d share, because I’ve written them up in a different order than the official SASS documentation. And I’m sure I’ll be revising things as I learn more, but here is where I am with this right now.

SASS documentation, Gertified

As far as I can tell, the .sass syntax isn’t used much. One site said nobody uses it. So all this is based off of the .scss syntax.

And stuff in blockquotes is from the official SASS documentation (found at sass-lang.com).

@IMPORT

  • Used to import other .scss files and partials into a .scss file.
  • Put these statements at the beginning of the file, in the order you want them included. It is also possible to nest them in a selector, but that restricts what is allowed in them.
  • Use the correct path to file.
  • _partial.scss – files beginning with an underscore aren’t compiled to .css files.
  • Don’t include the underscores for partials nor the .scss extensions in the file names.

@import
NESTING
& (the ampersand)

nesting

 

The & is replaced with the parent selector. In addition to what is shown above, you can also do this:

ampersand

 

@at-root

This can come in handy for flattening CSS specificity while still making it so you can group your selectors. It writes the selectors inside it out to the root level of the document. You can also use it for single selectors, like

@at-root .section-head { … }.

@at-root

Read more about @at-root, here: http://sass-lang.com/documentation/file.SASS_REFERENCE.html#at-root There are also “with” and “without” modifiers when using nested directives like @media queries, which can be nested in CSS rules and inside each other. The latter will result in a combined media query…

@media screen and (orientation: landscape)

SassScript

SassScript allows you to define properties using variables, math operators, functions, etc. Following are the features of SassScript…

VARIABLES

  • Variables are scoped to the container they are defined in, unless you use the !global flag.
  • Variables defined outside of any selectors are global.
  • You can use !default after a variable assignment, which will make the assignment as long as the variable wasn’t already assigned or has a value of null.

variables

Note the #{ } interpolation syntax, which allows you to use the value of the variable as part of a selector or property name. When using interpolation, quoted strings are unquoted.

It’s also possible to use #{} to put SassScript into property values. In most cases this isn’t any better than using a variable, but using #{} does mean that any operations near it will be treated as plain CSS. For example:

p { $font-size: 12px; $line-height: 30px; font: #{$font-size}/#{$line-height}; }

is compiled to:

p { font: 12px/30px; }

MIXINS

mixins

If a mixin doesn’t contain any arguments, or isn’t passed any values, you can omit the parenthesis.

mixins2

EXTENDING

You can extend a placeholder or a CSS selector. The % syntax defines a placeholder. It is not compiled to actual CSS, it is only valuable if used. But it allows you to extend a set of styles without basing them off of another selector. It’s sort of like a variable for a set of styles. In this example, column also extends sidebar, which means it picks up those styles as well as the stretch placeholder styles.

extend placholder

Extending makes use of selector combining so, if you don’t have to pass variables, use placeholders instead of mixins for repeating chunks of styles to generate less code in the compiled CSS.

You can’t extend concatenated selectors:

extend error

However, you can do stuff like this:

extend complexity

You can play with this stuff at http://sassmeister.com/ to try and wrap your head around the nitty gritty of @extend.

The !optional flag after the extend is supposed to make the extend fail gracefully if there isn’t a class found to extend. No CSS was output in this case.

extend optional

My thought is that for best practices – and understandability and maintainability – keep those extends simple! As I always say, just because you can do something doesn’t mean that you should.

FUNCTIONS

  • Functions are like mixins, only they return a value rather than styles. And you can do lots of processing in them.
  • Functions are called without the @include statement that mixins use.
  • Functions can be called with or without explicit keyword arguments. Keywords come in handy when you have a long list of arguments to pass and/or don’t want to pass all of them. (Named arguments can be passed in in any order.)

functions

There are lots of built-in functions, too lengthy to list here. But these are the categories of functions:

  • Color functions – for manipulating RGB, HSL, and opacity values
  • String functions – a lot of these are similar to javascript string functions
  • Number functions – again, similar to what javascript offers for numbers
  • List functions – for manipulating lists of values, traversing, replacing values, joining two lists, etc.
  • Map functions – all list functions work on maps, too, treating maps as lists of pairs. Plus there are some additional map-specific ones.
  • Selector functions – work on CSS selectors, still trying to wrap my head around this.
  • Introspection functions – these really help you figure out if features, variables, functions, other things exist, or what type of data you are working with
  • Miscellaneous functions – there are only two if() and unique-id()

See all of them here: http://sass-lang.com/documentation/Sass/Script/Functions.html#list-functions

DATA TYPES

SassScript supports seven main data types:

  • numbers (e.g. 1.21310px)
  • strings of text, with and without quotes (e.g. "foo"'bar'baz)
  • colors (e.g. blue#04a3f9rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.5))
  • booleans (e.g. truefalse)
  • nulls (e.g. null)
  • lists of values, separated by spaces or commas (e.g. 1.5em 1em 0 2emHelvetica, Arial, sans-serif)
  • maps from one value to another (e.g. (key1: value1, key2: value2))
Hint: always quote interpolated named colors if they are meant to become part of a selector.

OPERATIONS

Arithmetic

  • +, -, /, *, % (addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, modulo) – these can also be used on colors
  • expressions are evaluated left-to-right, with multiplication and division taking priority over division and subtraction. You can also use parenthesis around operations to add clarity. Spaces are not required but also can add clarity.
  • You can’t multiply two pixel values together- e.g. 2px * 2px
  • When multiplying percentages, leave off the % – e.g. use $width * .75 instead of $width * 75%

arithmetic

A special note on division. Since CSS supports the / in separating numbers (as in font-size/line-height), There are rules to make it used as division. When in doubt, add parentheses!

division

 

Equality (for all types)

== and !=

Relational (works on numbers)

<, >, <=, >=

Boolean

and, or, not

Concatenating 

  • The + operator works to combine strings
  • If you combine a quoted and unquoted string, whichever comes first determines what you wind up with (quoted or unquoted).
  • If two property values are concatenated, they are concatenated with a space in between them.
  • Interpolation can be used to place dynamic content inside a string (null values are interpreted as empty strings)

string concatenation

DIRECTIVES

Many of these have been covered already, but here are some more…

@debug, @warn, and @error that you can use with complicated SASS to help you debug.

@supports, but this is for the future (when CSS supports it, haha), to allow you to wrap CSS in @supports curly braces to supply alternate styles. For example:

supports

@if, @else, @for, @each, @while – these are like javascript control structures

The if() function is a shortcut for a simple @if/@else. Like so:

if function

You can pass content (stuff inside curly braces) to a mixin and specify where it goes in the mixin with the @content directive. The classic example is a media query mixin:

@content

Is there more? Yeah, there’s more. But this covers a lot of it. Go, read, play in Sassmeister and learn. There is great power here. Be safe!

Sources:


gertrude

Phew, that was a long post, huh? Well, I am known for my gift of gab. I do have to apologize, though, this post isn’t fully accessible because I used a lot of SassMeister screenshots. It was the easiest way. Please use the official Sass documentation if you need a more accessible reference.

Hugs.

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